Education links



Intermediate level:

      Plant reproduction and dispersal – an interactive course (made by Prof. Dr. Michiel Willemse and Dr. André van Lammeren, Laboratory of Cell Biology, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, 2019.)
      Pollen Biology with separate webpages on life cycle, fertilization, pollen calendars, hay fever etc.
      Seed Development and LCM - Movies from the Goldberg Lab
      Angiosperms (Flowering Plant) Life Cycle  - YouTube video
      Reproduction of Gymnosperms - YouTube video
      Flower Structure - YouTube video
      How Ovule and Female Gametophyte Develop - YouTube video
      Double Fertilization in Flowering Plants - YouTube video
    Detailed sites:
      Flower Structure
      Flower Morphology
      Flower Structure
      Pollen and Embryo Sac
      Pollination Adaptations
      Honeybee Biology
      Fertilization and Fruits
      Fruit Ripening
      Fruit Growth and Fruit Types
      Seeds and Fruits
      The Seed Site
      Seeds and Seed Germination

Advanced level:

    Plant Reproduction Research in Europe - a special issue of Plant Reproduction. *Free* review papers on
      • meiosis, apomixis, microspore embryogenesis (all posted 26 Aug. 2013)
    Germline specification in plant reproduction - a special issue of Sexual Plant Reproduction. Review papers on
      • evolution of reproductive development, polarity and embryo axis
      • cross-talk during germline development, male and female germ cell specification (all posted 23 May 2011)
    Deciphering molecular mechanisms of fertilization in seed plants - a *free* special issue of Sexual Plant Reproduction. Review papers on
      • synergids, male gamete genetic repertoire, attraction of pollen tubes, fertilization mechanisms
      • polyspermy barriers, zygote and embryo activation (all posted 14 March 2008) 
    Pollen Biology - videos, images and protocols
    Sexual Reproduction in Lily (Lilium) - pollen, embryo sac development and fertilization
    Live-Cell Imaging of Double Fertilization in Arabidopsis - videos from the Higashiyama lab
    Confocal Microscopy of Double Fertilization in Lily (Lilium) - stereorotation of sectioned material
    Pollen tube growth in Arabidopsis - videos, images, protocols from the Palanivelu lab
    Central cell fertilization and endosperm development in vitro - test tube endosperm
    Three classical papers on double fertilization - historical literature from ~100 years ago